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Văn hóa - Giải trí » Học Anh Văn phương pháp mới Tân Văn 20.11.2017 07:38
How to pronounce English properly
26.07.2008 22:21

How to Pronounce -ed in English

The past simple tense and past participle of all regular verbs end in -ed. For example:

base verb
(v1)
past simple
(v2)
past participle
(v3)
workworkedworked

In addition, many adjectives are made from the past participle and so end in -ed. For example:

  • I like painted furniture.

The question is: How do we pronounce the -ed?

The answer is: In 3 ways - / Id/ or / t/ or / d/

If the base verb ends in o­ne of these sounds:example base verb*:example
with -ed:
pronounce
the -ed:
extra syllable?
unvoiced/t/wantwanted/ Id/yes
voiced/d/endended
unvoiced/p/hopehoped/ t/no
/f/laughlaughed
/s/faxfaxed
/S/washwashed
/tS/watchwatched
/k/likeliked
voicedall other sounds,
for example...
playplayed/ d/
allowallowed
begbegged

* note that it is the sound that is important, not the letter or spelling. For example, "fax" ends in the letter "x" but the sound /s/; "like" ends in the letter "e" but the sound /k/.

Exceptions

The following -ed words used as adjectives are pronounced with /Id/:

  • aged
  • blessed
  • crooked
  • dogged
  • learned
  • naked
  • ragged
  • wicked
  • wretched

English Phonetic Spelling

When speaking o­n the telephone, it is sometimes useful to spell a word using English Phonetic Spelling. To spell "Club", for example, you would say: "C for Charlie, L for Lima, U for Uniform, B for Bravo."

It is very easy to learn English Phonetic Spelling. Start by spelling your name, then your company or address. Soon, you will know the whole alphabet. It also helps to remember that there are several groups of words that go together:

  • Dances: Foxtrot, Tango
  • Shakespeare: Romeo & Juliet
  • Men's first names: Charlie, Mike, Oscar, Victor
  • Cities: Lima, Quebec

AAlpha
BBravo
CCharlie
DDelta
EEcho
FFoxtrot
GGolf
HHotel
IIndia
JJuliet
KKilo
LLima
MMike
NNovember
OOscar
PPapa
QQuebec
RRomeo
SSierra
TTango
UUniform
VVictor
WWhisky
XX-ray
YYankee
ZZulu

English is not Phonetic

Always remember that English is not "phonetic". That means that we do not always say a word the same way that we spell it.

Some words can have the same spelling but different pronunciation, for example:

  • Audio I like to read [ri:d].
  • Audio I have read [red] that book.

Some words have different spelling but the same pronunciation, for example:

  • Audio I have read [red] that book.
  • Audio My favourite colour is red [red].

Learn the 52 Sounds of English
The English language may have 26 letters of the alphabet, but it has double that number of sounds: 52. Knowing and recognizing the 52 sounds will help to give you good pronunciation. Of course, everybody knows that good pronunciation helps our speaking. But do you know that good pronunciation also helps our listening? To learn and practise the 52 Sounds of English, check out Pronunciation Power, a pronunciation training program o­n CD-rom recommended by EnglishClub.com.

Understanding Syllables

To understand word stress, it helps to understand syllables.
Every word is made from syllables.
Each word has o­ne, two, three or more syllables.

wordnumber of syllables
dogdog1
greengreen1
quitequite1
quietqui-et2
orangeor-ange2
tableta-ble2
expensiveex-pen-sive3
interestingin-ter-est-ing4
realisticre-al-is-tic4
unexceptionalun-ex-cep-tion-al5

Notice that (with a few rare exceptions) every syllable contains at least o­ne vowel (a, e, i, o or u) or vowel sound.

What is Word Stress?

In English, we do not say each syllable with the same force or strength. In o­ne word, we accentuate o­nE syllable. We say one syllable very loudly (big, strong, important) and all the other syllables very quietly.

Let's take 3 words: photograph, photographer and photographic. Do they sound the same when spoken? No. Because we accentuate (stress) o­nE syllable in each word. And it is not always the same syllable. So the shape of each word is different.

click word to hearAudioshapetotal
syllables
stressed
syllable
PHO TO GRAPH3#1
PHO  TO GRAPH ER4#2
PHO TO  GRAPH IC4#3

This happens in ALL words with 2 or more syllables: TEACHer, JaPAN, CHINa, aBOVE, converSAtion, INteresting, imPORtant, deMAND, etCETera, etCETera, etCETera

The syllables that are not stressed are ‘weak’ or ‘small’ or ‘quiet’. Native speakers of English listen for the STRESSED syllables, not the weak syllables. If you use word stress in your speech, you will instantly and automatically improve your pronunciation and your comprehension.

Try to hear the stress in individual words each time you listen to English - o­n the radio, or in films for example. Your first step is to HEAR and recognise it. After that, you can USE it!

There are two very important rules about word stress:

  1. One word, o­ne stress. (One word cannot have two stresses. So if you hear two stresses, you have heard two words, not o­ne word.)
  2. The stress is always o­n a vowel.

There are two very simple rules about word stress:

  1. One word has o­nly o­ne stress. (One word cannot have two stresses. If you hear two stresses, you hear two words. Two stresses cannot be o­ne word. It is true that there can be a "secondary" stress in some words. But a secondary stress is much smaller than the main [primary] stress, and is o­nly used in long words.)

  2. We can o­nly stress vowels, not consonants.

Here are some more, rather complicated, rules that can help you understand where to put the stress. But do not rely o­n them too much, because there are many exceptions. It is better to try to "feel" the music of the language and to add the stress naturally.

1 Stress o­n first syllable

ruleexample
Most 2-syllable nounsPRESent, EXport, CHIna, TAble
Most 2-syllable adjectivesPRESent, SLENder, CLEVer, HAPpy

2 Stress o­n last syllable

ruleexample
Most 2-syllable verbsto preSENT, to exPORT, to deCIDE, to beGIN
 
There are many two-syllable words in English whose meaning and class change with a change in stress. The word present, for example is a two-syllable word. If we stress the first syllable, it is a noun (gift) or an adjective (opposite of absent). But if we stress the second syllable, it becomes a verb (to offer). More examples: the words export, import, contract and object can all be nouns or verbs depending o­n whether the stress is o­n the first or second syllable.

3 Stress o­n penultimate syllable (penultimate = second from end)

ruleexample
Words ending in -icGRAPHic, geoGRAPHic, geoLOGic
Words ending in -sion and -tionteleVIsion, reveLAtion
 
For a few words, native English speakers don't always "agree" o­n where to put the stress. For example, some people say teleVIsion and others say TELevision. Another example is: CONtroversy and conTROversy.

4 Stress o­n ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end)

ruleexample
Words ending in -cy, -ty, -phy and -gydeMOcracy, dependaBIlity, phoTOgraphy, geOLogy
Words ending in -alCRItical, geoLOGical

5 Compound words (words with two parts)

ruleexample
For compound nouns, the stress is o­n the first partBLACKbird, GREENhouse
For compound adjectives, the stress is o­n the second partbad-TEMpered, old-FASHioned
For compound verbs, the stress is o­n the second partto underSTAND, to overFLOW

Sentence Stress in English

Sentence stress is the music of spoken English. Like word stress, sentence stress can help you to understand spoken English, especially when spoken fast.

Sentence stress is what gives English its rhythm or "beat". You remember that word stress is accent o­n one syllable within a word. Sentence stress is accent o­n certain words within a sentence.

Most sentences have two types of word:

  • content words
  • structure words

Content words are the key words of a sentence. They are the important words that carry the meaning or sense.

Structure words are not very important words. They are small, simple words that make the sentence correct grammatically. They give the sentence its correct form or "structure".

If you remove the structure words from a sentence, you will probably still understand the sentence.

If you remove the content words from a sentence, you will not understand the sentence. The sentence has no sense or meaning.

Imagine that you receive this telegram message:

WillyouSELLmeCARbecauseI'mGONEtoFRANCE
Click to listen Click here to hear

This sentence is not complete. It is not a "grammatically correct" sentence. But you probably understand it. These 4 words communicate very well. Somebody wants you to sell their car for them because they have gone to France. We can add a few words:

WillyouSELLmyCARbecauseI'veGONEtoFRANCE
Click to listen Click here to hear

The new words do not really add any more information. But they make the message more correct grammatically. We can add even more words to make o­ne complete, grammatically correct sentence. But the information is basically the same:

Content Words
WillyouSELLmyCARbecauseI'veGONEtoFRANCE.
Structure Words
Click to listen Click here to hear

In our sentence, the 4 key words (sell, car, gone, France) are accentuated or stressed.

Why is this important for pronunciation? It is important because it adds "music" to the language. It is the rhythm of the English language. It changes the speed at which we speak (and listen to) the language. The time between each stressed word is the same.

In our sentence, there is 1 syllable between SELL and CAR and 3 syllables between CAR and GONE. But the time (t) between SELL and CAR and between CAR and GONE is the same. We maintain a constant beat o­n the stressed words. To do this, we say "my" more slowly, and "because I've" more quickly. We change the speed of the small structure words so that the rhythm of the key content words stays the same.

syllables
2131
WillyouSELLmyCARbecauseI'veGONEtoFRANCE.

t1
beat

t1
beat

t1
beat

t1
beat

Sentence Stress Rules >

See also: Word Stress

I am a proFESsional phoTOgrapher whose MAIN INterest is to TAKE SPEcial, BLACK and WHITE PHOtographs that exHIBit ABstract MEANings in their photoGRAPHic STRUCture.

Rules for Sentence Stress in English

The basic rules of sentence stress are:

  1. content words are stressed
  2. structure words are unstressed
  3. the time between stressed words is always the same

The following tables can help you decide which words are content words and which words are structure words:

Content words - stressed

Words carrying the meaningExample
main verbsSELL, GIVE, EMPLOY
nounsCAR, MUSIC, MARY
adjectivesRED, BIG, INTERESTING
adverbsQUICKLY, LOUDLY, NEVER
negative auxiliariesDON'T, AREN'T, CAN'T

Structure words - unstressed

Words for correct grammarExample
pronounshe, we, they
prepositionson, at, into
articlesa, an, the
conjunctionsand, but, because
auxiliary verbsdo, be, have, can, must

Exceptions

The above rules are for for what is called "neutral" or normal stress. But sometimes we can stress a word that would normally be o­nly a structure word, for example to correct information. Look at the following dialogue:

"They've been to Mongolia, haven't they?"
"No, THEY haven't, but WE have.

Note also that when "be" is used as a main verb, it is usually unstressed (even though in this case it is a content word).

Rules for Sentence Stress in English

The basic rules of sentence stress are:

  1. content words are stressed
  2. structure words are unstressed
  3. the time between stressed words is always the same

The following tables can help you decide which words are content words and which words are structure words:

Content words - stressed

Words carrying the meaningExample
main verbsSELL, GIVE, EMPLOY
nounsCAR, MUSIC, MARY
adjectivesRED, BIG, INTERESTING
adverbsQUICKLY, LOUDLY, NEVER
negative auxiliariesDON'T, AREN'T, CAN'T

Structure words - unstressed

Words for correct grammarExample
pronounshe, we, they
prepositionson, at, into
articlesa, an, the
conjunctionsand, but, because
auxiliary verbsdo, be, have, can, must

Exceptions

The above rules are for for what is called "neutral" or normal stress. But sometimes we can stress a word that would normally be o­nly a structure word, for example to correct information. Look at the following dialogue:

"They've been to Mongolia, haven't they?"
"No, THEY haven't, but WE have.

Note also that when "be" is used as a main verb, it is usually unstressed (even though in this case it is a content word).

Homophones

Homophones are words that have exactly the same sound (pronunciation) but different meanings and (usually) spelling.

For example, the following two words have the same sound, but different meanings and spelling:

Audiohour
Audioour

In the next example, the two words have the same sound and spelling, but different meanings:

Audio bear (the animal)
Audiobear (to carry)

Usually homophones are in groups of two (our, hour), but very occasionally they can be in groups of three (to, too, two) or even four. If we take our "bear" example, we can add another word to the group"

Audiobare (naked)
Audiobear (the animal)
Audiobear (to tolerate)

Audio"Our bear cannot bear to be bare at any hour."

The word homophone is made from two combining forms:
  • homo- (from the Greek word "homos", meaning "same"
  • -phone (from the Greek word "phone", meaning "voice" or "sound"
You will see many other English words using o­ne or other of these combining forms.

The following list of 70 groups of homophones contains o­nly the most common homophones, using relatively well-known words. These are headwords o­nly. No inflections (such as third person singular "s" or noun plurals) are included.

airheir 
aisleisle 
ante-anti- 
eyeI 
barebearbear
bebee 
brakebreak 
buyby 
cellsell 
centscent 
cerealserial 
coarsecourse 
complementcompliment 
damdamn 
deardeer 
diedye 
fairfare 
firfur 
flourflower 
forfour 
hairhare 
healheel 
hearhere 
himhymn 
holewhole 
hourour 
idleidol 
ininn 
knightnight 
knotnot 
knowno 
mademaid 
mailmale 
meatmeet 
morningmourning 
nonenun 
oaror 
onewon 
pairpear 
peacepiece 
plainplane 
poorpour 
prayprey 
principalprinciple 
profitprophet 
realreel 
rightwrite 
rootroute 
sailsale 
seasee 
seamseem 
sightsite 
sewsosow
shoresure 
solesoul 
somesum 
sonsun 
stairstare 
stationarystationery 
stealsteel 
suitesweet 
tailtale 
theirthere 
totootwo
toetow 
waistwaste 
waitweight 
wayweigh 
weakweek 
wearwhere 

NB: In a few cases, a third homophone, although possible, has not been included for simplicity. Different varieties and accents of English may produce variations in some of these pronunciations. The homophones listed here are based o­n British English.

 

Linking in English

When we say a sentence in English, we join or "link" words to each other. Because of this linking, the words in a sentence do not always sound the same as when we say them individually. Linking is very important in English. If you recognize and use linking, two things will happen:

  1. you will understand other people more easily
  2. other people will understand you more easily

There are basically two types of linking:

  • consonant > vowel
    We link words ending with a consonant sound to words beginning with a vowel sound
  • vowel > vowel
    We link words ending with a vowel sound to words beginning with a vowel sound

In this lesson we look at:

Understanding Vowels & Consonants for Linking

To understand linking, it is important to know the difference between vowel sounds and consonant sounds. Here is a table of English vowels and consonants:

vowelsa e i o u 
consonants bcd fgh jklmn pqrst vwxyz

The table shows the letters that are vowels and consonants. But the important thing in linking is the sound, not the letter. Often the letter and the sound are the same, but not always.

For example, the word "pay" ends with:

  • the consonant letter "y"
  • the vowel sound "a"

Here are some more examples:

 thoughknow
ends with the letterhw
ends with the soundoo
 
 uniformhonest
begins with the letteruh
begins with the soundyo

 

Linking Vowel to Vowel

When o­ne word ends with a vowel sound and the next word begins with a vowel sound, we link the words with a sort of W or Y sound.

oo
º
 If our lips are round at the end of the first word, we insert a W sound:
 
We write it like this:too oftenwho isso Ido all
We say it like this:tooWoftenwhoWissoWIdoWall
 
oo
 If our lips are wide at the end of the first word, we insert a Y sound:
 
We write it like this:I amKay isthe endshe asked
We say it like this:IYamKayYistheYendsheYasked
 

Normally, we pronounce "the" with a short sound (like "thuh"). But when "the" comes before a vowel sound, we pronounce it as a long "thee".

vowel soundwe writewe say
Athe applethee apple
Ethe eggthee egg
Ithe ice-creamthee ice-cream
Othe orangethee orange
Uthe ugli fruitthee ugli fruit

It is important to understand that it is what we say that matters, not what we write. It is the sound that matters, not the letter used in writing a word. So we use a long "thee" before a vowel sound, not necessarily before a vowel. Look at these cases:

we writewithwe saywith
the houseconsonant (h)thuh houseconsonant sound
the hourconsonant (h)thee ourvowel sound
the universityvowel (u)thuh youniversityconsonant sound
the umbrellavowel (u)thee umbrellavowel sound

Emphatic the [thee]
When we wish to place emphasis o­n a particular word, we can use "emphatic the" [thee], whether or not the word begins with a consonant or vowel sound. For example:

A: I saw the [thuh] President yesterday.
B: What! The [thee] President of the United States?
A: Yes, exactly.

Tongue-Twisters

A tongue-twister is a sequence of words that is difficult to pronounce quickly and correctly. Even native English speakers find the tongue-twisters o­n this page difficult to say quickly. Try them yourself. Try to say them as fast as possible, but correctly!

A proper copper coffee pot.

Around the rugged rocks the ragged rascals ran.

Long legged ladies last longer.

Mixed biscuits, mixed biscuits.

A box of biscuits, a box of mixed biscuits and a biscuit mixer!

Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled pepper.
Did Peter Piper pick a peck of pickled pepper?
If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled pepper,
Where's the peck of pickled pepper Peter Piper picked?

Pink lorry, yellow lorry.

Red leather, yellow leather, red leather, yellow leather.

She sells sea-shells o­n the sea-shore.

The sixth sick Sheik's sixth sheep is sick.
[Sometimes described as the hardest tongue-twister in the English language.]

Swan swam over the pond,
Swim swan swim!
Swan swam back again -
Well swum swan!

Three grey geese in green fields grazing.

We surely shall see the sun shine soon.

(englishclub.com)

Please click here:

English E-book Think and grow Rich by Dale Carnegie

http://www.dalecarnegie.com/flash/gbflash.htm





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